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In the world of contract staffing, where temporary employees are often hired through staffing agencies, one common aspect that both employers and employees encounter is the conversion fee. But what exactly are conversion fees, and are they legal? Let’s delve into this topic to gain a better understanding.

Understanding Conversion Fees

Conversion fees, also known as conversion placement fees, are charges imposed by staffing agencies when a client decides to hire a temporary employee directly as a permanent staff member. These fees are meant to compensate the agency for the investment they made in finding, screening, and placing the candidate initially.

When a company employs the services of a staffing agency to fill temporary positions, they typically sign a contract with that firm, or their Employer of Record (EOR) partner. outlining the terms and conditions of the agreement, including any potential conversion fees. If the client decides to convert a temporary employee into a permanent role, they are obligated to pay the conversion fee to the staffing agency, as per the terms of the contract.

Legal Considerations

The legality of conversion fees largely depends on various factors, including jurisdictional laws and the specific terms outlined in the contract between the staffing agency and the client. Here are some key points to consider regarding the legality of conversion fees:

  1. Contractual Agreements: Conversion fees are generally legal if they are clearly defined and agreed upon in the contract between the staffing agency and the client. Both parties willingly enter into these agreements with full understanding and consent.
  2. Compliance with Labor Laws: It’s essential for staffing agencies to ensure that their practices, including the imposition of conversion fees, comply with relevant labor laws and regulations. These laws may vary from one jurisdiction to another and may impose certain restrictions on the imposition of fees.
  3. Reasonableness: Courts may scrutinize conversion fees to ensure they are reasonable and proportional to the services provided by the staffing agency. Fees that are deemed excessive or unfair may be subject to legal challenges.
  4. Transparency: Staffing agencies must maintain transparency regarding conversion fees, including disclosing them upfront to clients and candidates. Hidden or undisclosed fees can raise legal issues and damage the reputation of the agency.
  5. Industry: Conversion fees may or may not be legal based on the industry a staffing agency serves. Healthcare staffing agencies are much more likely to face legal restrictions when it comes to conversion fees compared to other industries. Understanding which laws and license requirements apply to healthcare staffing agencies and non-healthcare staffing agencies is key to ensuring compliance with local labor laws. 

States that Restrict Conversion Fees

Conversion fees are categorized under a greater labor law category called “Restrictive Covenants”. A restrictive covenant, also known as a non-compete agreement or covenant not to compete, is a contractual clause commonly found in labor contracts or employment agreements, while in staffing these covenants are found in client agreements. It imposes limitations on the activities an employee can engage in after leaving their employment with a company. In the staffing industry the employer, or “company”, would be the staffing firm. 

Many states have begun cracking down on restrictive covenants, especially in the healthcare staffing market. This was in large part due to much of the bad press that the healthcare staffing industry got during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to this, and other factors, 9 different states have passed legislation regarding restrictive covenants and conversion fee language as of March 2024. Those states include California, Oregon, Colorado, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Maine. Additionally the state of California has a separate bill called AB 2741 that is currently on the ballot.


What contract language is restricted?

While some states only restrict non-solicitation language, other states restrict conversion fee language specifically. So it is important to know the difference between those two types of contract clauses and what is permitted in each state. Additionally much of the legislation only applies to healthcare staffing engagements, and can even be as specific to only apply to certain healthcare roles like RN and LPN positions. It’s important to consult your legal professional or advisor to ensure you understand which laws apply to your firm.


In conclusion, conversion fees are a common practice in contract staffing, but their legality hinges on factors such as contractual agreements, compliance with labor laws, reasonableness, and transparency. When structured and implemented correctly, conversion fees serve as a legitimate means for staffing agencies to recover their investment and sustain their operations. However, it’s crucial for both staffing agencies and clients to understand their rights and obligations regarding conversion fees to avoid potential legal complications. As with any legal matter, consulting with legal professionals can provide clarity and guidance tailored to specific circumstances.

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